A 27-year-old male is brought to the EmergencyDepartment following an episode of loss of consciousness at home.His partner witnessed the episode and reports that the patient’sarms and legs were jerking throughout. The episode has been ongoingfor 10-minutes and has not terminated despite the use ofintravenous lorazepam. On examination, there is obvious jerking ofall four limbs and crusted blood around the patients’mouth.
(i) Whatis the diagnosis in this case? Define Status Epilepticus ANDrefractory Status Epilepticus. List the steps in the management ofstatus epilepticus including THREE medicines that can be used aspart of the management.
(ii) Listthe different potential aetiologies for a patient presenting withseizure and give TWO examples in each category.
(iii) Outline the investigation of a patient presentingwith seizure and provide ONE rationale for each. Describe themanagement of a patient with epilepsy. List in your answer TWOanti-epileptic drugs and their mechanism of action.